An analysis of the first national referendum government reform

Such a development would represent the beginning of a second transition to democracy after the first National Sovereign Conference of in Togo. Also some members of national security forces are against reforms because of fear of potential legal proceedings against them for violations they have committed over the years.

In the early s, his one party dictatorship and brutal regime faced growing opposition. In addition, the amendments included a requirement for presidential candidates to reside in Togo for at least one year prior to the election.

Referendum organizers have used the provision to "protect" a law from being altered by subsequent legislative action. After all, the state socialist countries of the East Block were labeled socialist, but that alone does not mean that they were.

As this multiplication would not automatically yield a round number, the fractional part would be allocated in favour of the party or parties with the largest fractions.

Economic Development Next, the reform would move Venezuela further along a path of non-capitalist economic development. However, the President continues to play an important role in these processes. The NDP promised to implement mixed-member proportional representation with regional and open party lists, based on the recommendations of the Law Commission, [3] while the Liberals simply promised to form an all-party committee to investigate various electoral reform options "including proportional representation, ranked ballots, mandatory voting and online voting".

Eighteen states permit the recall of state officials. This is not born of suffrage nor any election, but out of the condition of the human groups that are organized as the base of the population.

Reforms are in fact the most dangerous moment for an authoritarian regime because they could trigger the unravelling or even the end of it. In addition to strengthening the position of the state and of workers relative to private capital, the reform would also strengthen the position of domestic business relative to international business because it removes the requirement that foreign companies be treated the same as national companies art.

No balance seats for overhang[ edit ] A particular situation that could arise, though rarely, is that a party might win more local seats than it would normally be allowed in total based on its share of the party vote.

If voters reject the law, it is voided and does not take effect. The Nevada state capitol shortly after its construction exhibited the vertical profile of an Italianate revival structure. According to the reform, it would also take the form of worker, student, youth, elderly, women, etc.

Trudeau might have moved on, but some still dream of electoral reform

Also, one must recognize, just as some in the Chavez government have argued, that the reform represents a "transition" towards "21st century socialism," not its full implementation, which is still somewhat unclear.

Photograph by Ronald M. Its report was submitted in November In the end, the referendum process is thus significantly weakened and the national government thus strengthened in the name of greater efficiency, when other procedures might have been found that do not weaken the citizen-initiated referendum process as a whole.

The problem is that these different issues have inadvisably inflamed the debate on the constitutional reform. However, the newly adopted reform redistributes 34 presidential powers to other branches of government, and this requested to amend 23 Articles of the existing Constitution.

In this form of the process, the Legislature, and in some states the governor, may place a question on the ballot to gauge voter opinion. Major changes are, however, introduced in relation to the constitutional review.

Existing local power structures would remain untouched and unaffected by the designation of these areas, other than in the sense of receiving more national government attention.

President Barack Obama, of the promise of this reform. Indeed, the reform lends itself to this misreading because it says the president may designate a variety of new politico-geographic areas, such as federal territories, federal municipalities, federal cities, and "functional districts," and may name the respective authorities, without defining the power of these authorities or the function of these new territorial divisions art.

It has been observed that the outcome of the referendum may affect the implementation of this plan, as the future of the government is linked to it.

Although senators would be covered by parliamentary immunity and other benefits, they would not receive parliamentary indemnity, a measure championed as a useful means to save public money. However, it is absurd to claim that the lack of a clear definition in this regard means that these new territorial divisions or the respective authorities would take power away from elected representatives if the reformed constitution does not say that their powers would be diminished in any way.

The president is elected by direct universal suffrage for a five-year term, renewable only once, through a majority two-round electoral system. This approach to allocating the fractional seats is called the largest remainder method.

Recall differs from another method for removing officials from office — impeachment — in that it is a political device while impeachment is a legal process.

This is not to say that the Kazakh form of government could not be changed because included in the list of constitutional values; theoretically, however, the only way to shift from one governmental system to another is by holding a nationwide referendum.

Under the current Constitution, the President of the Republic, the National Assembly and the Senate, whose powers are exercised by the Assembly as it is not in operation, each appoint three members of the Constitutional Court for a renewable seven-year term.

His eventual successor will be forced to share power with other institutions, thus creating, paradoxically, unintended but more amenable conditions for a real transformation of Kazakhstan into a truly pluralistic and democratic order.


Failure to implement the Comprehensive Political Agreement Under the Political Agreement, the new government of national unity would organize the legislative elections. Regions would elect the members of the Senate in conformity with the choices expressed by the people voting for the election of the regional organs.

This excess of seats is called an "overhang" and in some systems, a form of compensation is made for this by adding "balance seats" to the other parties. Organization of the State:An Ontario electoral reform referendum was held on October 10,on the question of whether to establish a mixed member proportional representation (MMP) system for elections to the Legislative Assembly of killarney10mile.comr, the resulting vote was strongly in favour of the existing plurality voting or "first-past-the-post" (FPTP) system.

national referendums might be conducted as a legitimate form of consultation. The final section proceeds to evaluate the substantive issue of second chamber reform. The right to referendum was the first reform, enacted in Referendum is a direct vote of the people whether to approve or repeal a law enacted by the state legislature.

A referendum (or public vote) occurs only after the legislature passes a law, and in Nevada, a referendum can only be amended by another vote of the people. The following is an article-by-article summary of the changes being proposed to Venezuela's constitution. Venezuelans will vote on the reform on December 2nd and will do so in two blocks.

Ontario electoral reform referendum, 2007

Block "A" includes President Chavez's original proposal and 13 articles introduced by the National Assembly. Block "B" includes another 26 reform. A national referendum was always going to be fraught.

2017 Constitutional Reform in Kazakhstan: increasing democracy without political pluralism?

The threshold for implementing reform would have been debated. The vote might have. Italians are voting in a referendum on the reform of the Constitution.

Venezuela’s Constitutional Reform: An Article-by-Article Summary

The goal of the reform is to modernize the Italian state by changing significant parts .

An analysis of the first national referendum government reform
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