Greek Cypriots wanted the entire island to become part of Greece, while Turkish Cypriots wanted the northern part of the island to become an independent Turkish state. By mid-century, due to lands gained through an aggressive expansionist policy and through post-World War II treaties, the Soviet Empire gained control of all of Russia and most of Central Asia and Eastern Europe.
Their colonial ideology explicitly claimed that they were on a "civilizing mission" to lift the benighted "natives" out of backwardness to the new status of civilized French Africans.
Most of these conflicts such as the one in Kashmir, Chechnya, and Cyprus are large and complex, and involve multiple issues ranging from human rights to good governance. For this An introduction to the effects of colonization tactic he acquired arms, especially quick-firing rifles, from European merchant and traders in Sierra Leone and Senegal.
In general, small-scale societies, the decentralized societies erroneously known as "stateless" societiesused guerrilla warfare because of their size and the absence of standing or professional armies.
Lugard simply and wisely adapted it to his ends.
For example, Melber states, " t he social transformation processes in Zimbabwe, Namibia, and South Africa can at best be characterized as a transition from controlled change to changed control. Human-rights violations, including horrific events of mass murder and genocide, can be found in postcolonial and post-Soviet states such as Cambodia, Rwanda, Kosovo, El Salvador, and South Africa.
In general, the French administrative system was more centralized, bureaucratic, and interventionist than the British system of colonial rule. Instead of professional soldiers, small groups of organized fighters with a mastery of the terrain mounted resistance by using the classical guerrilla tactic of hit-and-run raids against stationary enemy forces.
They also created federations in West Africa and Central Africa. The technological factor was expressed in the radical disparity between the technologies of warfare deployed by the contending European and African forces. To achieve this, the French used the policy of assimilation, whereby through acculturation and education and the fulfillment of some formal conditions, some "natives" would become evolved and civilized French Africans.
Instead, it developed the perverse view that the colonized should pay for their colonial domination. The conference produced a treaty known as the Berlin Act, with provisions to guide the conduct of the European inter-imperialist competition in Africa.
This situation was compounded by commercial conflicts between Europeans and Africans. Consequently, when liberation came, these states lacked the internal structures, institutions, and 1egalitarian way of thinking needed to create good governance systems.
Colonial policies and directives were implemented through a central administrative organization or a colonial secretariat, with officers responsible for different departments such as Revenue, Agriculture, Trade, Transport, Health, Education, Police, Prison, and so on.
Assimilation The French, for their part, established a highly centralized administrative system that was influenced by their ideology of colonialism and their national tradition of extreme administrative centralism.
United States Institute of Peace,p. In the famous battle of Adwa inone hundred thousand Ethiopian troops confronted the Italians and inflicted a decisive defeat. Naturally Africans resisted and insisted on the maintenance of a system of commercial interaction with foreigners which expressed their sovereignties as autonomous political and economic entities and actors.
Partly as a result of their origins in military conquest and partly because of the racist ideology of the imperialist enterprise, the colonial states were authoritarian, bureaucratic systems. However, since France would not provide the educational system to train all its colonized subjects to speak French and would not establish administrative and social systems to employ all its subjects, assimilation was more an imperialist political and ideological posture than a serious political objective.
While they were all authoritarian, bureaucratic state systems, their forms of administration varied, partly due to the different national administrative traditions and specific imperialist ideologies of the colonizers and partly because of the political conditions in the various territories that they conquered.
But the African societies eventually lost out. It was a pragmatic and parsimonious choice based partly on using existing functional institutions.
With these resources and his well-trained forces and the motivation of national defense he provided his protracted resistance to the French.
The nineteenth century was a period of profound and even revolutionary changes in the political geography of Africa, characterized by the demise of old African kingdoms and empires and their reconfiguration into different political entities.
Click here for document. United States Institute of Peace, Most of these new nations, however, Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. The theory and practice of indirect rule is commonly associated with Lord Lugard, who was first the British high commissioner for northern Nigeria and later governor-general of Nigeria.Transcript of Effects of Colonization on the New World.
Effects of Colonization on the New World England's colonization of the new world had drastic effects on the native peoples, the environment, and also the colonists themselves. the introduction of Christianity to the native population, and the expulsion of the natives from their land.
The Colonization of Africa Ehiedu E. G. Iweriebor – Hunter College. Between the s andAfrica faced European imperialist aggression, diplomatic pressures, military invasions, and eventual conquest and colonization.
Effects of Colonization. By Sandra Marker. and their lingering effects. Colonial and Soviet Expansionism. Western colonial expansion began during the 15th century when Spanish and Portuguese explorers conquered "new" lands in the West Indies and the Americas.
It continued for over years, and ended with the start of the first World War. The Effects of Colonization on Modern African Cultures In November -Europe met for The Berlin Conference in which Africa was sub-divided giving each current European powers a part to govern.
This scrabble for Africa was an official degradation of all African future political power and present government. Colonization, Globalization and Language Vitality in Africa: An Introduction Salikoko S.
Mufwene and Cécile B. Vigouroux Historical Background The word colonization in the title of this chapter is intended to conjure up the. Free Essay: The Effects of Colonization on the Native Americans Native Americans had inherited the land now called America and eventually their lives were.Download