Trade law essay

In such a case, it will become a Confirming Bank. This is because the bill of lading must be procured on shipment that is to say as soon as is reasonably possible after the goods have been delivered to the carrier for carriage to the agreed destination.

Although banks do act as facilitators for their clients under collections, documentary collections offer no verification process and limited recourse in the event of nonpayment. Its primary responsibility is to authenticate the LC to ensure that the LC comes from genuine source.

Cash-in-Advance With this payment method, the exporter can avoid credit risk, since payment is received prior to the transfer of ownership of the goods. Frequently in international trade activities, buyers and sellers find themselves at opposite ends of the spectrum, where the buyer may not wish or may not be permitted to remit payment in advance for goods, and the seller may be reluctant to ship goods without any guarantee of payment.

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Although letters of credit come in numerous types, the two most basic ones are 1 Revocable-credit letter of credit, and 2 Irrevocable-credit letter of credit, which comes in two versions a Confirmed irrevocable letter of credit and b Not-confirmed irrevocable letter of credit.

A tenor draft is normally required for presentation under an acceptance credit and is drawn on the acceptance bank rather than the issuing bank. However, the carrier must be advised that if, in accordance with the general principle, property may, if the contract shows such an intention, pass at some different stage, as on shipment or on consignment of the documents to the buyer, then the contractual link between the buyer Najeeb and the ship-owner, arises out of the contract of carriage.

An LC is a commitment by a bank on behalf of the buyer that payment will be made to the exporter provided that the terms and conditions have been met, as verified through the presentation of all required documents.

But the suit may be brought in any competent jurisdiction, not necessarily in the jurisdiction where the matter is ultimately decided; and Trade law essay suit must be brought in the name of a party who has title to sue under an agreement known as the Gold Clause Agreement, entered into between British shipowners and underwriters.

These documents almost always include a clean bill of lading or air waybill, commercial invoice, and certificate of origin. A Nominated Bank is not responsible to pay under the credit unless it has added its confirmation to the credit.

Moreover, the bill of lading must cover only the goods which are the subject matter of the contract of sale, but in the absence of an express term in the contract of sale stipulating for the tender of more than one bill of lading, the seller is both entitled and bound to tender one bill of lading, at any rate when the goods sold are Trade law essay of the same type.

But it is doubtful whether a buyer can reject a bill of lading against the seller simply because it seeks to give the carrier a liberty to deviate. Therefore, where goods for which a bill of lading has been signed have been shipped, the property in the goods may, so long as the voyage continues, be transferred by a transfer of the bill of lading, made according to its tenor, and with the intention of passing the property in the goods However, the transfer may be made with the intention of passing the property conditionally, or for a specific purpose only, and not for the purpose of passing the property outright in the goods, as where the bill of lading is transmitted with a bill of exchange drawn on the buyer.

Obviously, this is the most advantageous option to the importer in cash flow and cost terms, but it is consequently the highest risk option for an exporter. However, the invoice, that normally debits the buyer with the agreed price is required partly to identify the goods sold with the goods shipped and insured to complete the record of the transaction and to show the price of the goods and to enable the buyer to raise money on their security more easily.

This means the carrier needs to be advised that the voyage is deemed to continue so long as the goods are in the custody of the master of the vessel, or of some person on his behalf and until possession of the goods has been taken by or on behalf of the person entitled to demand it.

Therefore, this duty has been examined in the courts in the context of a number of requirements.

This means that if an indorsee changes their position on the faith of this representation and afterwards sues the ship-owner for delivering the goods in bad condition, the shipowner at any rate where they were not induced to make the statement by fraud will be estopped from denying that the goods were shipped in apparent good order and condition in keeping with the 50 damp bags and bags which contained tiny holes and some of the sugar had escaped through the holes during the journey that should have been recognised when the sugar was being loaded.

However, the banking system does not take on any responsibility for the quality of goods, genuineness of documents, or any other provision in the contract of sale. Nevertheless, the carrier also needs to be advised that the one-year period may be extended if the parties so agree after the cause of action has arisen, so that it may be argued that the carrier may even have had a role in determining whether they are liable.

Nominated Bank A Nominated Bank is a bank authorised by the Issuing bank in the credit to pay, negotiate, issue a deferred payment undertaking or accept drafts under the LC. The carrier also needs to be advised that this is in keeping with the fact there are a number of requirements for the acceptable tender of a bill of lading.

Business Essays - International Trade Law

Therefore, exporters who are reluctant to extend credit may face the possibility of the loss of the sale to their competitors.

But it must also be recognised that the carrier also needs to be advised that where the Hague-Visby Rules apply, by virtue of the Carriage of Goods by Sea Actand the receiver is taking advantage of the estoppel in the Hague-Visby Rules at Article III, rule 4, there is no need for them to prove that they relied upon the statement.

Funds are received from the importer and remitted to the exporter through the banks involved in the collection in exchange for those documents. Thus, the international banking system acts as an intermediary between far flung exporters and importers.

As well as this, as to whether or not a bill of lading stating the carrier can deviate from the voyage stipulated for in the contract of carriage is also still doubtful. However, the bill of lading must not only comply with the requirements set out above but it must also accurately evidence the contract of carriage because the buyer is not obliged to investigate, or to accept assurances about, the contract of carriage outside the bill of lading.

Thus, exporters that insist on this method of payment as their sole method of doing business may find themselves losing out to competitors who may be willing to offer more attractive payment terms. This is because the contract is an agreement for the sale of goods to be performed by delivery of documents, or a sale of documents representing goods, with the seller having obligations in law regarding both the goods and the documents covering them Accordingly, this is in keeping with the fact that an agreement for the carriage by sea of a cargo or for the use of a ship for a voyage or series of voyages or for a specified time is normally contained in or evidenced by a bill of lading On this basis, it must be recognised that the carrier needs to be advised the bill of lading is considered the most important document in this kind of contract.

Drafts are generally less expensive than letters of credit. This is because of the fact that it is the duty of the seller to procure a contract of carriage is satisfied if they procure a contract of carriage which conforms to any stipulations agreed in the contract of sale and which is otherwise reasonable and acceptable in the trade.

The draft lists instructions that specify the documents required for the transfer of title to the goods. A tenor draft is not required for presentation under a deferred payment credit. First, in the absence of a stipulation or custom in the particular trade to the contrary, the contract of carriage must be one which will give the holder a right of action against the carrier in respect of the goods from the time of shipment until arrival at destination.

This means that it is generally understood that the property in the goods i. Nevertheless, the carrier must still be advised that estoppel will be available to the indorsee or holder only if they have changed their position on the faith of the representation and the fact that the indorsee has taken up and pays for the bill of lading and other shipping documents under a CIF contract is prima facie evidence that they changed their position on the faith of the representation in the bill of lading.

Republic of India v. An LC also protects the buyer since no payment obligation arises until the goods have been shipped or delivered as promised. Such undertaking is in addition to that given by the Issuing Bank at the request of the Issuing Bank.International Trade Before The World Trade Organisation International Law Essay International Trade before WTO From tothe General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) provided the rules for much of world trade and presided over periods that saw some of the highest growth rates in international commerce.

Sample law essay. The law essay below has been submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. Please ensure that you reference our essays correctly. Essay about Law for International Trade Words | 14 Pages BTW International Trade Law Assignment 2 Jesse Cooper, Part A: On the face of it, or prima facie there are three issues that are raised in this case.

1) Definition: International trade, also as world trade, foreign trade or overseas trade, is the fair and deliberate exchange of goods and services across national boundaries. It concerns trade operations of both import and export and includes the purchase and sale of both visible and invisible goods.

- Introduction to International trade International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories or in other words is the process of import and export. international trade has been present throughout much of history its economic, social, and political importance has been on the rise in recent centuries.

“The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established inunder the GATT when followed by the Uruguay Round of negotiations. It said the WTO’s mandate was “the crossing of an important threshold in international trade relations".

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Trade law essay
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